Combat occurs whenever a military unit of one nationality enters a space occupied by a military unit of another nationality. The two units fight it out until the attacker or defender is destroyed or the attacking unit retreats.
Declaration of War
You can only attack another civ's unit if you're at war with that civ. If you attempt to attack a civ while not at war, an advisor will ask you if you want to declare war. If so, the attack can occur. If not, the attack is canceled. There are some circumstances under which you cannot declare war - and hence, attack - another civ. In such cases your advisors will tell you why you can't declare war. You're always at war the barbarians. (They think diplomacy is for weaklings!)
A Knight with a modified strength of 6 is attacking a Legion with a modified strength of 1. Pretty good odds for the Knight!
The Odds
When you are in the process of moving a unit into an enemy unit's space, the battling units' modified strengths are displayed on the Combat Preview screen. The potential success or failure of an attack is based upon the relative modified strengths of the two units involved in the combat. A unit with an attack strength of 10 versus a unit with an defense strength of 2 has a high probability of success, while a unit with an attack strength of 4 versus another with a defense strength of 4 has about a 50-50 chance of success.
Comb at St rengt h Modifiers
A unit's basic attack or defense combat strength may be modified by a variety of factors:
Injuries
If a unit has been injured in a previous combat, it will be weakened until it heals.
Promotions
Successful units may have earned promotions that increase their attack and/or defense strengths.
Terrain
Certain terrains provide bonuses to attack or defense strengths.
Great Generals
A unit may get a benefit if a great general is in its space.
Naval Bombardment
If certain friendly naval units are adjacent to the space being attacked, the attacker gets a naval bombardment bonus.
City Benefits
If in a city, a unit may get a defensive bonus if the city has walls or other defensive works.
1. Quick Combat Button
2. Retreat Button
During Comb at
Once combat has begun, you will see the units start to duke it out. You'll be able to judge the general success or failure of the attack as the soldiers on each side are killed. (You can skip the animation sequence and go right to the results by pressing the "Quick Combat" button.)
Retreating from Comb at
If you are the attacker, you may press the "Retreat Button: to call off an attack if it appears that your side is losing. The combat will immediately end. Defending units immediately gain 3 experience points when an attacker retreats from battle. Note that this option is available only when you're the attacker.
Victory in Battle
Whichever unit wins gains experience points. If the attacker is victorious, the defender is destroyed. If that unit was the only military unit in the space, the attacker may "follow up" and move in to occupy that space. If the defender wins, the attacker is destroyed.
Siege Units
Certain units - catapults, cannon, and artillery - are classified as "siege" units. These units get no penalty when attacking across a river. Also, these units do not "follow up" - they do not automatically advance into a non-city space following a successful attack. However, they do follow up if attacking a city.
Ranged Units
Certain units - archers, riflemen and modern infantry - are classified as "ranged" units. These units are similar to siege units in that they don't follow up a successful attack unless attacking a city. However, these units do get the attacking penalty when attacking across a river.
Attacking St acks
When a unit attacks a stack, it battles the enemy unit with the highest modified defense strength. All defenders must be destroyed before an attacking unit can occupy that space.
Battle Damage
A unit may be damaged (or "wounded") during a battle. A wounded unit has a reduced attack and defense strength.
Healing from Damage
To recover (or "heal"), a unit must remain immobile in neutral or home territory. The severity of the damage determines whether the unit will need to spend one or two turns fully healing from its injuries. Press the "Heal" Action Button to heal a damaged unit. Note that a unit cannot heal in enemy territory unless that unit has the "Medic" upgrade.
IC BMs
This weapon becomes available to the civ that creates the Manhattan Project wonder. Only 1 ICBM is available per game. The ICBM destroys all units and buildings in the targeted space, and cities and units in surrounding spaces have
their numbers cut in half. Deploying a nuke will reduce your cultural level, shrinking your borders (unless you're using the Despot form of government).
The SDI building fully defends a city and the surrounding spaces. If a nuke targets a space defended by the SDI, the nuke is lost.
Upgrades
As a unit gains combat experience, it may become eligible for special promotions or "upgrades" which increase its strength, movement, or give it special abilities. A unit's combat experience is measured in "experience points" (or "XPs"). Generally,
each time the unit gains three XPs it becomes eligible for a new upgrade.
Gaining Experience
A unit can gain experience in a number of ways:
1. A unit that is constructed in a city with a barracks or Great Leader in it begins with three "experience points."
2. A unit that wins a battle gets an experience point, more if it wins against a stronger opponent.
3. If an attacker retreats from a combat, the defending unit gets three experience points.
Spending Experience Points
A unit can expend its experience points to purchase upgrades whenever it's active. It can hold on to them until a later turn, if you wish, but there's usually no good reason to do so.
The "Veteran" Upgrade This is the first upgrade. It occurs automatically whenever a unit gets its first three experience points. A "veteran" unit's attack and defense strengths are increased by 50% in all future combat. The player gets to choose which future upgrades a unit gets.
Upgrades List
See "Promotions" on page 69 for a complete list of upgrades.
 
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